Monday, September 30, 2019

Poli Sci Internet Essay

Deliberative polling, started by James Fishkin, is a process wherein random citizens are invited to deliberate on certain issues before and after education on such issues. After initial polling, these citizens enter into interactions with experts and leaders based on their questions about the issues, and given the same polling questions. The process is recorded and broadcast, in the hopes of reaching viewers to educate them about the issues. Changes in opinion before and after the polling support Fishkin’s stance that citizens are generally uninformed about issues, other than the usual sound-bites. Panel polling describes the act of recruiting panelists—people who specifically reflect opinions of a certain demographic—and polling these panelists on certain issues. The panelist may be compensated for their time or be volunteers. The Internet has changed the face of communication. Forums, which are the Internet’s version of bulletin boards but used for discussions, can bring citizens together to discuss issues. Both deliberative polling and panel polling can be achieved through a forum, where experts and leaders may also visit the site to interact with citizens. E-mail lists may be used for both types of polling, but the e-mail of the participants and their political geographies must be known in order to assess demographics. However, not every citizen uses the Internet, and polling through the Internet may miss large sections of the population. http://cdd. stanford. edu/polls/ – â€Å"Center for Deliberative Democracy† http://www. iht. com/articles/2007/05/27/bloomberg/poll28. php –â€Å"Polling Goes Online, with A Recruited Panel† http://www. mysterypollster. com/main/2005/07/internet_pollin. html — â€Å"Internet Polling: Unfulfilled Promise† 3. Democratic National Party – Leftist/liberal — http://www. democrats. org/ Republican Party—Rightist/conservative — http://www. rnc. org/ Constitution Party—Rightist/conservative — http://www. constitution-party. net/ Green Party—Leftist/liberal — http://www. gp. org/ Libertarian party—Center — http://www. lp. org/ All of these sites have several of the basic choices on the front page: about the party, donation, e-mail lists, get involved, news, key party values, press releases, a blog, and links encouraging citizens to register to vote. The Green, Constitution, and Republican Party, however, lack easy-to-find links so that party members can connect to each other online; the DNP and LP offer links from their front pages to join online groups for those interested in the party. Both the GOP and the DNP do not have information regarding â€Å"becoming a candidate†, while the Green, Constitution, and Libertarian Parties do. Unsurprisingly, because they are the two major parties in the US, both the RP and the DNC offer more material on their websites, such as more details on party organization and leadership. The Libertarian Party has a bit more information than the Green and Constitution Parties. From my perusal of the websites, the Constitution Party’s is the least interactive. There are many informative links, but the only link in which a member might be connected to another member is through the â€Å"Events† link. The Green Party website is similar. The Libertarian Party has a web page devoted to social networks such as Meetup or LinkedIn, the DNP offers its own â€Å"partybuilder† to connect members, and the GOP has a customizable social network â€Å"MyGOP†. It is not whether a party is left or right-leaning that determine the interactivity of its web content, but the party’s size. Larger parties have more members that donate money in order to design, program, and create larger websites that offer more. 4. Although creating any website is relatively easy, it’s not so easy to organize, create, and maintain a large, dynamic website. Any website must offer its customers clarity yet also be informative and not confusing. If the information must look good and be organized, then design and page layout are factors. If interaction is desired, then more programming is needed. In addition, time spent creating a website is money, and larger, more programming-heavy websites do cost more to make and maintain. From the five websites I have browsed, the larger, more detailed websites belonged to the parties who were larger and could raise more money. Therefore I don’t agree with the claim that the Internet levels the playing field between all parties. Furthermore, there are many people in the U. S. who do not have access to the Internet, or who don’t use the Internet for news or video. People who live in remote areas, or are a generation removed from the Internet age, may have difficulties. It may be that some of these people cannot afford Internet access, or cannot access the Internet as easily as others. These people would be harder to reach if parties relied solely on websites to gain their audience. So even with the wide availability, the Internet may still not reach all citizens. However, it is an easy and inexpensive task to simply put up an informative page without the bells and whistles. In this way, the Internet can make the playing field more even. The existence of blogs and online magazines shows this. But I think that the Internet can be used in addition to traditional methods of connecting people—door-to-door, telephone calls, postal mail—in order to make a campaign more effective. The Internet is also a great way to tap into those who do use it day-to-day and are familiar with it. 5. 1. Middleberg Associates surveyed that in 1998, 50% of newspapers were online or had plans to go online. F – the number is 90%. 2. Low costs are the major factor in a news organization’s move onto the Web. –T 3. PoliticsNow was a joint collaboration between NBC News, National Journal, and the Washington Post. – F—It was a joint collaboration with ABC News, not NBC. 4. The most important advantage of online advertising is the ability to target certain aspects of the audience. –T 5. The most common web advertisement is the Flash ad. –F—The most common advertisement is the banner ad. 6. Being able to charge subscribers is a revenue alternative. –T 7. The benefits of charging subscribers outweigh the benefits of free content. –F—When websites charge for their content, traffic decreases. 8. The Wall Street Journal is one of the few newspapers that charge a subscriber base successfully. –T 9. Usually, libraries can use archival databases free of charge. –F—It’s customary for newspapers and magazines to charge libraries to use their archival databases. 10. Three major nontraditional news organizations are The Drudge Report, Salon, and Slate. –T 11. The first big story to break online was regarding the Unibomber. –F—The first big story to break online was Timothy McVeigh’s confession to the Oklahoma City bombing. 12. A common Web-enabled feature is the search engine. –T 13. The first television show with supplementary web content was Who Wants to Be a Millionaire. –F—The show was Survivor. 14. The number of people going online for news rose from 1% in 1995 to 16% by 2002. –T 15. There is no age gap in online news consumers. –F—18- to 29-year-olds go online for news five times that of those over age 65. 6. The 109th Congress passed the most bills in the last ten years (1998-2008). 7. a. List of ways in which the Internet impacts relationship between nations: 1. Communications—people around the world can e-mail each other, and even meet via the Internet, for business, political, or personal reasons. 2. Information—Nations, and regions within nations, can advertise, introduce, or just inform people all over the about their culture and locations. Embassies and consulates have their own websites, and tourism can be influenced by what information people find online. 3. Organization—The Internet can help bring people together and organize them, across country borders. For example, it is possible to access websites from abroad about political candidates in one’s home nation, and meet others in one’s political party despite vast distances. Another example is that a presidential candidate can use the Internet to gather groups of people and organize them. b. List the ways that the Internet impacts the relationships between non-national actors. 1. The Internet makes small communications faster, via e-mail or online messaging, which can be a part of a multi-tasking worker’s day. 2. The Internet is a great tool to bring strangers together for causes or concerns, such as petitions or volunteer polling. 3. News shows often have a supplementary website in which viewers can comment with each other in real-time, such as Cafferty Files.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Canadian Solar Essay

However, with the global economic downturn in the recent years as well as changes in the government incentives in certain countries, the company has been struggling to stay on top in this competitive market, and needs to keep a competitive advantage against companies such as Sharp and Kyocera. This is a big problem to the company since it threatens their strategy and might put them out of competition. Which brings us to the question: What should Canadian Solar do to best compete in the increasingly â€Å"global† photovoltaic industry? Analysis External Analysis General Environment Most of the general aspects influence the PV industry relies on government incentive programs. Programs for green energy such as the FIT program, has a positive effect on the industry since it guarantees rates on certain projects. Other government laws such as the placement of a cap can have a negative effect on the industry. Therefore, since income levels vary for every country, this will affect the usage of PV technology. Moreover, society has a desire to â€Å"go green† and they highly value PV technology, although the implementation of PV technology can cause society financial harm such as in Spain, where the unanticipated installations caused taxpayers $26. 4 billion. Threat of new Entrants Barriers to entry are considered low since the PV industry requires low capital and medium to low technological knowledge to make PV module. The low barriers to entry are also due to †¦

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Case Management of Term Paper

Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Case Management of Hispanics - Term Paper Example This topic is being considered in the hope of establishing a clear understanding of the applicability of complementary and alternative medicine in the management of illnesses among the Hispanic population. Concept Complementary and alternative medicine is defined by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2011) as a diverse and varied medical and health systems and practices which are not normally considered part of conventional or standard medical practice. It is not as widely accepted as conventional medicine, but some of its applications have already been accepted as effective treatments and have therefore formed part of generally applied medicine. Complementary medicine is medicine which is included and used together with conventional medicine (NCCAM, 2011). Alternative medicine, on the other hand is used in place of conventional medicine; in most instances, as the sole treatment, without integration of conventional medicine techniques. CAM includes a wide range of ancient and new-age techniques which claim to treat and to prevent the onset of illness (Barnes, et.al., 2008). In the strictest sense, CAM is not a part of conventional medicine because there is still inadequate proof for its safe and effective use in healthcare. As a result, judgment for the use of these techniques is largely based on discretion and evidence-based support. In general, individuals utilizing CAM are finding ways to improve their overall physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being (Astin, et.al., 2000). Moreover, they often turn to CAM to seek relief from a terminal or chronic illness or from the side-effects of their conventional treatment. Furthermore, they consider CAM as a means of establishing a holistic and transformative management of their body and all its issues (Institute of Medicine, 2005). CAM practitioners often attempt to treat not only the physical chemical symptoms of the disease, but also the psychological, emotional, and mental i mpact of the illness. Most patients availing of this treatment consider it as a means of complementing their conventional medicine management; seldom is it used as an alternative form of treatment (Barnes, et.al., 2008). Based on a National Health Interview survey (2002), about a third of adults use atleast one form of CAM. Usual CAM therapies include non-mineral natural products, meditation, yoga, massage, deep-breathing exercises, and diet-based therapies (Barnes, et.al., 2002). In the past, CAM has often been used to relieve back aches, headaches, chest colds, neck pain, joint stiffness, and anxiety. Although much less common, the use of these forms of treatment has also been prevalent in the management of symptoms for cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular infection (Mao, et.al., 2007). Its use has also been common among women and among adults with higher educational qualifications, including adults who have been suffering from one or two health issues requiring multiple medi cal consults in a year (Nahin, et.al., 2007). CAM techniques are often categorized into different classifications. One of its categories includes natural products. These natural produces are popularly known as herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, and other dietary supplements (NCCAM, 2011). Probiotics or

Friday, September 27, 2019

8.6 case study Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

8.6 case study - Coursework Example In the perspective of the second meaning, organizations promote corporate ethics so as to define a set of corporate values, to meet consumer expectations and employee demands, and to deal with economic pressures effectively (p.620). When it comes to IT practices, the first definition (meaning) implies that firms must develop improved IT policies and procedures to operate in well compliance with federal laws and regulations. From the same viewpoint, the second definition implies that organizations need to maintain well established IT practices to ensure that consumers enjoy the benefits of convenient shopping and consumers’ tastes, and specifications are adequately addressed. The firm’s economic environment can have a great influence on these practices. Companies have more choices when economic conditions are favorable but choices may have to be limited under the situations of economic downturns. 2. The advancements in IT greatly benefit corporate enterprises to address ethical issues effectively, and to take advantages of emerging opportunities with regard to corporate governance. The case study tells that IT can contribute significantly to corporate strategy. CIOs can identify the misuses of those IT capabilities, and they will be also able to flag those issues timely and thereby prevent the firm from becoming exposed to scandals. The case described about the business fraud committed by marketing workers at a large telephone company can be cited as a good example. The company executives had identified the fraud before the marketing department actually executed it. Then they developed a comprehensive IT system to monitor the use and prevent the unauthorized access to such sensitive information in future. Similarly, Intel’s IT system helps the company meet its legal and regulatory requirements in addition to enhancing its own corporate values and ethical principles (p p.620-621). 3. In my personal view, organizations should pursue high ethical standards in

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Cerebral palsy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Cerebral palsy - Research Paper Example William Little in 1861 and then this disease was called little disease for a long time. After some time Little’s idea was changed to some extent by some other physicians such as Sigmund Feud proposing that even insults during pregnancy faced by the mother can cause this disorder in the child even before the birth. Major causes of Cerebral Palsy occur in parental age which is known as age from birth to first five years (Berker and Yalcin, 47-57). CP is the most common cause of the disability occurring in childhood in Western Societies. It was thought previously that increased cared during, pregnancy, infant caring system and early parental period can decrease the intensity of the disease yet it is not proved as probability of the disease increased between 1980’s and 1990’s greatly. Certain factors that are involved in the early child hood can increase the chances of CP (cerebral palsy) to occur in the children. Even presence of a single risk among all the risk fac tors involved in the aid of disease to happen can increase the chance of disorder to happen in the child as compared to the normal population of babies. Risk factors involved are divided into three main types that prenatal, perinatal and postnatal factors. Prematurity and low birth rates that exist heavily in the western countries are the two main factors that lead to CP. Postnatal risk are also a main factor that exists in rest of the world (Berker and Yalcin, 47-57). A clear relation exists between CP and birth weights. Low weight increases the risk than can result in the disease. Increase in quantity of waste products can affect the development of CNS. Multiple pregnancies can also increase the risk factor. Baby which carries these risks should be taken into extreme care by the medical professionals and parents from the time of birth to early five years which are known as parental years. Other risk factors include bleeding in the brain, brain infections, head injuries and infecti ons affecting the mother and ultimately the child during pregnancy. In some cases however the cause of CP can never be determined (Chan). Clinical analysis of the behavior of the children that are suffering with CP include impairments in CNS, muscle tone, strength and selectivity that are directly related to the damage of the baby in CNS. Secondary problems faced by the children are based on these primary problems. Tertiary problems occur due to the adaptive mechanism followed by the child to deal with primary and secondary problems. Muscles grow due to stretches that occur as a result of active movement. When a child moves and plays it results in a necessary movement of muscles that is required by them to grow properly. This leads to the fact that the child which cannot play due to poor selective control and abnormal balance is having a greater chance of carrying CP. As a result muscles do not grow result in an abnormality in the movement and posture in future (Berker and Yalcin, 4 7-57). Abnormality caused due to lack of muscle movement can result in partial or complete malfunctioning in different parts of the body shown in the diagram as follows: CP due to lack of movement muscles Source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-FP0CL6hG28k/TbXKdRVOz6I/AAAAAAAAAC8/HmxOyJfXr84/s1600/cerebral_palsy2.gif The movement problem during infancy period is not apparent. It happens in the period after the infancy when the children carrying CP show delay in muscle related

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Faculty of Business Environment and Society Essay - 6

Faculty of Business Environment and Society - Essay Example Managing of international human resources actually enables an organization to compete successfully in the global marketplace, and this is a proper method for the employees development (Du Plessis & Beaver, 2008). The human resource managers allow their employees to go on international assignments without basic training or given time for the â€Å"transitioning†. The human resource managers have to put in place structures that develop the required leadership professionalism. The reviews on relevant literature would provide a picture of the affairs regarding human resource Managers and employees. The significant difference in between human resource management and international human resource management is the fact that one is related to multinational corporations while the other is related to domestic firms (Du Plessis & Beaver, 2008). The effective international managers are those who are flexible, adaptable, speaking in foreign languages, open-minded, and make friends from many nationalities (Du Plessis & Beaver, 2008). This is advantageous especially when a company outsources overseas in order to explore a new market that has the new lifestyle, labour conditions, and language. At the point when a business expects to grow to an abroad market, human resource directors need to use human capital keeping in mind the end goal efficiency and productivity. Human resource chiefs could counsel local delegates of an oversee business with respect to employment aspects, the country’s local culture, safety, traditions or customs so as to work in concordance with local procedures. In Dubai, for example, like the most of Islamic nations, the foreign women are not permitted to be employed. Hence, this will influence human resources worldwide recruitment procedure for the workers, as well as for wives of its professional expatriates. Diverse moral and business guidelines can likewise

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Management of Change Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4750 words

Management of Change - Assignment Example The organization ranked fifth in 2013 in the list of Forbes Global 2000. The organization is known as the biggest refineries in the world having 37 oil refineries distributed in 21 countries. It is biggest amongst the super major oil manufactures in the world with regular production of almost 3.921 million BOE. 1) Needs for Change The organization has weak employee management all over the world. It is one of the major concerning issues of the organization. The organization is facing various human rights and legal issues because of which its operations have slowed down to some extent. The oil spills and other environmental hazards have disrupted the efficient operations of the organization. There are cases of fraud and bribery in the global operations. The increasing government regulations are creating barriers in the business operations of the organization. This is an increasing threat of NGC. There exists high competition in the oil manufacturing industry. The organization has high threat from the big competitors in the industry. Among the big competitors of NGC are Royal Dutch Shell, BR, and Chevron. Hofstede Cultural Analysis It is a 5D model for exploring the culture of different nations. The cultural analysis of USA using this model has been given below: Power Distance: This dimension states that every individual in the society are not equal. It focuses on the inequalities among the individuals. The power distance can be defined as the extent till which less powerful individuals in a powerful country expect as well as accept that the power is always distributed unequally. United States scores low in this particular dimension. The country focuses on the equality of rights in every aspect of the American environment or society. In the organizations of this country, hierarchy is developed for the convenience. The superiors are always ready to help and the managers have high reliance on their teams and employees. The communication is participative, direct and very much informal. Individualism: This dimension mainly addresses to the issue about the extent of interdependence that the society maintains amongst all the members. An individualistic society is that society where individuals look after their direct family and themselves. On the other hand, a collectivist society is the one where the people belong to groups and take care of each other in exchange of the loyalty. United States possesses high individualistic culture. The individuals look after their direct families. The Americans are self reliant and do not depend on others for fulfilling their needs. Masculinity or Femininity: High score (Masculinity) is the dimension where the society is driven by success, competition, achievement and the success is defined by the winner or the individual best in any field. Low score (femininity) is the dimension where the society is very much caring for others as well as their quality of life. United States is considered to possess masculine dim ension. The Americans are success driven and they seek for achieving higher success. In the organizations, the Americans focus on attaining higher status or monetary rewards by making good

Monday, September 23, 2019

What is HR management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

What is HR management - Essay Example urce can provide value to a business by seeking, interpreting, and anticipating changes that occur in the business environment with an aim of preparing and appropriate solutions to the anticipated changes. For instance, the Human Resource can anticipate impact of changes that may occur within a business’ processes or workforce and work in tandem with the other management levels to understand and come up with creative and logical ways of responding to such changes. The HR professionals have a unique role in addressing pertinent issues that come up within the workforce of an organization. For instance, the professionals are strategically placed to advice and help the management of businesses in coming up with correct formulations of the workforce skills and attributes relevant for a particular task within their businesses. Also, the HR professionals can leverage on their quantitative skills to come up with desirable programs that will ultimately improve skills, effectiveness, and capabilities of the workforce. The Human Resource professionals and personnel are responsible for hiring, developing, and managing employees. The HR professionals put into use the skills of the employees into realizing the missions of the organizations. In orde to achieve a well-balanced working environment between an organization, its workforce and optimum output, the personnel management will recruit, hire, and develop the qualified people. In line with their hiring responsibilities, the human resource personnel would also direct and encourage the growth of the employees in their organizations. The most effective HR professional within a given business is one who possesses a strategic thinking mindset. Thinking strategically means that the HR professional will help the company to translate the visions and goals of an organization from statements on paper to specific actionable goals that an organization can measure. Strategic thinking mindset involves setting well-prioritized goals

Sunday, September 22, 2019

What are the Impediments to Restoring Peace in Post-Saddam Iraq Term Paper

What are the Impediments to Restoring Peace in Post-Saddam Iraq - Term Paper Example In and after several stages over the next 12 years or so, Iraq attained its independence in the year 1932. Iraq was proclaimed as a republic in the year 1958, but in actual a series of military strongmen ruled the country until 2003. The last one known of them was Saddam Hussain. Iraq also had territorial disputes with Iran that led to an inconclusive and costly war for almost an entire decade from the year 1980 to 1988). In the year August 1990, Iraq captured Kuwait with the sole reason of capturing the major chunk of oil trade in the Middle East but was later on expelled by the US-led, UN coalition forces during the Gulf War that happened during January-February 1991. It followed in the liberation of Kuwait, the UN Security Council (UNSC) put stringent conditions on Iraq to scrap all its weapons of mass destruction and long-range missiles. (Tripp) The UNSC also pressurized Iraq to allow UN verification inspectors to inspect it's suspected nuclear facilities and centers for making of weapons of mass-destruction like biological weapons. Iraq didn't cede to and complied with the UNSC resolutions over a period of 12 years that in turn led to the US-led invasion of Iraq in the year March 2003 and the permanent ouster of the Saddam Hussain regime from Iraq. Under a UNSC mandate, the coalition forces are keeping a vigil in Iraq trying to keep the democracy alive and helping to provide security to the common people and to support the freely elected democratic government. (Frontline) Iraq's economy is dominated by the oil sector, which has traditionally provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Although looting, insurgent attacks, and sabotage have undermined economy-rebuilding efforts, economic activity is beginning to pick up in areas recently secured by the US military surge. Oil exports are around levels seen before Operation Iraqi Freedom, and total government revenues have benefited from high oil prices. (CIA The World Fact Book, Iraq)It is true that there has been a lot of rebuilding effort in Iraq with the intervention and aid of quite a few International Institutions and Countries and Iraq has made some progress to rebuild the institutions that it needs to implement and reap the rewards of the new economic policy. In this direction, Iraq has also negotiated an agreement for the reduction of debt with the Paris Club and also a new Stand-By Arrangement with the IMF. Iraq has also received pledges for $13.5 billion in foreign aid for the period span ning 2004-07 from outside of the US, and also more than $33 billion in total pledges from all the aid givers. An understanding was reached with the current regime in Iraq in May 2007 to integrate Iraq into the regional and global economy without any apparent prejudices.

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Employee Benefit and Google Essay Example for Free

Employee Benefit and Google Essay Google, Inc. was ranked by Fortune magazine as the best place in the U.S. to work in 2009, and it has reached another zenith by becoming the most popular Web site. Google, Inc.’s goal of providing benefits and rewards is to â€Å"strip away everything that gets in our employees’ way† (Google, 2009). Google, Inc. provides a standard package of fringe benefits, but on top of that are first-class dining facilities, gyms, laundry rooms, massage rooms, haircuts, carwashes, dry cleaning, commuting buses – just about anything a hardworking employee might want. Schmitt states, â€Å"Let’s face it: programmers want to program, they don’t want to do their laundry. So we make it easy for them to do both† (Google, 2009). Google believes in providing both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. They understand that many humans are not motivated by pay incentives alone. Google Inc. believes in administering rewards and that good company culture is vital to company success, therefore, Google hired a Culture Czar. Google, Inc.’s CCO, Chief Culture Czar, Stacy Sullivan, is devoted to one thing—make Googlers happy. One way of maintaining Google, Inc.’s culture and keeping employees happy is administering the best perks and rewards (Culture, 2009). Along with its compensation and traditional extrinsic benefits such as free health and dental benefits, flex spending accounts, 401K plans, insurance, tuition reimbursement, and vacation packages, they also have very unique benefits. These unique benefits include maternity benefits up to 18 weeks off at approximately 100% pay. In addition, new mothers and fathers get Take-Out Benefits to help make things easier. They are provided with expenses up to $500 for take-out meals during the first three months that they are home with their new baby. Additionally, Google, Inc. provides back-up child care and in the Gift Matching Program, Google, Inc. matches contributions of up to $3000 per year from eligible employees to non-profit organizations. With Adoption Assistance, Google, Inc. assists their employees by offering financial assistance in the adoption of a child. Google, Inc. will reimburse employees up to $5000 to use towards legal expenses. Free lunch and dinner from gourmet chefs create a wide variety of healthy and delicious meals every day. Got the munchies? Google, Inc. also offers snacks to help satisfy you in between meals. At Google headquarters in Mountain View, California employees have the convenience of seeing a doctor on-site. Google, Inc. is pleased to provide its Mountain View employees with free shuttles to several San Francisco, East Bay and South Bay locations. At Google headquarters in Mountain View, there is on-site oil change, car wash, dry cleaning, massage therapy, gym, hair stylist, fitness classes and bike repair. Google, Inc. will reimburse an employee for buying a hybrid car, up to $5000. Google, Inc. provides other benefits, too many to list, but one can assume that their full-time culture czar is not finished inventing new ways to reward employees (Google, 2009). More than the extrinsic rewards, people who choose to come to Google, Inc. come for other reasons besides just the outward perks and rewards. They come for freedom.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Global Culture And Cultural Imperialism Media Essay

Global Culture And Cultural Imperialism Media Essay Some scholars believe that globalization is a process that human race constantly across the spatial barriers, institutional, cultural and other social barriers so that we can achieve fully communication (material and informational) on a global scale and reach more consensus and joint-action. This process is a multi-dimensional, both unified and diverse and constantly conflictive. On this basis, the â€Å"cultural globalization† is considered as a process of looking for cultural integration and sharing within the conflict and the unity, which means all national cultures through the exchange, integration, infiltration and complementarity continually break their own cultural patterns and geographic limitations and move towards the world; continuously go beyond the boundaries of the national culture and get cultural identity under human judgments; constantly change the national cultural resources into human sharing resources. This kind of process is a formation and evolution of fo rce. In this way, â€Å"globalization† seems to be such a force, which is the source of capitalist countries in Europe and now mainly is the United States. They are in an attempt to maximally transform or digest the various differences or conflicts of the worlds national culture into the same. However we have to clarify that culture, which is the human-specific phenomenon, as the crystallization of human civilization and progress, permeates through all areas of social life. It plays an irreplaceable effect for the people to foster a correct world outlook, philosophy of life, conception of history and sense of worth. National culture is the soul of a nation and the spiritual symbol. It is the core of culture. Any nations culture, including mode of production, social structure, ideology, religion, ethics, customs etc, is the sign of the existence of this nation and the premise of continuation of development. In the context of globalization, the reason cultural diversity still can be maintained is because this closely linked by national independence maintaining. One of the basic characteristics of culture is ethnicity. This is the cornerstone for this nationality based on the worlds nations. If one nation completely denies their own cultural traditions, loses the national self-confidence, and is willing to accept the alien to assimilation, it is the beginning of this nations decline. Once any kind of culture losing their national identity, it does not exist as an independent culture any longer. Establishing of the so-called globalization which are dominated by one specific kind of culture, its essence is to implement a cultural hegemony. It is a typical cultural imperialism. The term of â€Å"cultural imperialism† is one of the numbers of terms emerging in the 1960s to criticize of society in a radical-spirit way. Since then this term is widely used by the intelligentsia. However its definition and connotation has always been fragmented and ambiguous. The referent is extremely broad and similar to one another in a high degree. This term came originally from the mixture of two words culture and imperialism, and these two words in itself is extremely complicated and prone to doubt. The objective for synthesis of this word is to provide a concept which is similar with a protective umbrella, meanwhile it accommodates a very a wide range of topics. In certain circumstances, it can be defined as: â€Å"The use of political and economic power to exalt and spread the values and habits of a foreign culture at the expense of a native culture† (Tomlinson, 1991). Such a definition itself tends to think that the essence of cultural imperialism is to pro mote and spread the values in the habit, and in this process, â€Å"political† and â€Å"economic† power only plays an instrumental role. However, many of the discussion about cultural imperialism, in fact, more emphasize on the significance of economic role. While all cultural factors, but is a tool, is one used to support political and economic domination. In other words, the process of the imperialist countries controls other countries is cultural advanced. The imperialist countries export to other countries cultural forms of supporting the imperialist relations, and then complete the state of the imperial domination. Just like American scholar Jameson pointed out in 1986 that the First World countries master the worlds cultural output initiative. They can mandatorily indoctrinate their own values and ideologies to the Second World through media. At the same time however, the disadvantaged and marginalized Third World countries can only passively accept. Their cultu ral heritage is at risk, and their cultural values and ideologies are under constant infiltration as well. The aggression and infiltration of the First World culture provoked opposition from Third World culture, and the struggle against cultural colonial and hegemony which resulting the cultural conflict is inevitable. For a curtain period, many countries from Europe to the Americas, from Africa to Asia, a lot of new content have been appearing for the popular culture and daily life. Jeans, McDonalds, rock and roll, Hollywood blockbusters, or even the Western middle-class lifestyle, taste and pursuit, etc., have been becoming the new kind of fashion. People enjoy the Western civilization through eating, drinking and being merry; accept unconsciously the edification and influence of Western culture. Such cultural infiltration is more effective than the wars using of aircraft and missiles. Some cultural infiltration could lead many countries lose not only their national identity, but themselves as well, and then accept the Western values and institutions involuntarily. The external violence, such as missiles, is not very terrible, but more frightening than the missile is the economic and cultural which is a sort of subtle and underhanded soft knife. If the old imperialism mainly used guns to conquer the world and enslave the weak peoples, the â€Å"cultural imperialism† in virtue of cultural infiltration, quietly conquers the hearts of people from other countries and allows them to consciously obey the superpower hegemony. In the context of economic globalization, any country with the independent cultural tradition must safeguard their own cultural tradition, cultural benefits and cultural security by taking positive measures. Many countries and even some western developed countries use â€Å"multi-polar cultural theory† to against American â€Å"unilateral cultural strategy†. For instance, in 1989, the European Parliament passed through the â€Å"Television without Frontiers Directive (TVWF)† to ensure the playing time for the European film and television works; At the same time EU determined the six standards of â€Å"cultural exception†; In 1993, France, Canada and other countries in the Uruguay Round negotiations put forward the â€Å"cultural exception† concept which states that cultural exports should be treated differently than other goods in trade negotiations because national cultures should be protected. In my point of view, economic globalization and economic integration is indeed a tide and trend which cannot be stopped. However in contrast, the culture probably cannot be fully integrated. Generally speaking, there are both globalization and integration factors for culture, but also exist factors that cannot be completely globalized and integrated. The anti-globalization demonstration in Seattle and the protest by German people when the U.S. president visiting to Germany demonstrated that even in the west itself, there are widespread anti-globalization voices. Culture is far beyond the simple material production. It is a more advanced and more complex human spirit activity. The cultural homogenization which right followed of globalization should not be prematurely optimistic estimated. However these issues are well worth pondering: what aspects of culture is the ability to globalize and integrate; what are not the factors? To answer these questions, a special study on â€Å"culture† should be necessary. First of all, there is a commonality side between human feelings and ideas. In the process of creating its own history, human beings also create their own spiritual and emotional world. Although for the different regions and different ethnic people, their display form for the emotional and other spiritual activities are varied, there are some common areas that are communicable and blended with each other. Only in this way, humans can be closely linked rather than gapped. In this sense, cultural globalization is feasible and should be. Secondly on the other hand, factors for culture which cannot be globalized and integrated still should not be ignored. These cultural factors constitute the core of the different national cultures. Language is one of such cultural factors. Language is the carrier of any culture; moreover also constitute the core of different cultures. We can see that the globalization of strong languages, such as English, is contributing to the demise of many minority languages. In nowadays, about 20 kinds of languages are disappearing around the world every year. With the disappearance of these languages, those related natural cultures of disadvantaged groups have been becoming extinct. What is more, discussing literature and art is inseparable with the language. For a nations culture, literature is the most distinctive and ethnic. If the language can be globalized, in addition to those nations who use strong languages, the literature works with other languages will also completely eliminate as the languages disappearing. Language for literature is not just a medium. Disappearance of the various and colorful national languages could lead the spirit of literature to be sameness and narrow. The demise of literature which is the most characteristic is a symbol of the demise of the national culture. Therefore linguistic, as the core element of culture is not possible to or should not be integrated. The idea of cultural globalization is not able to fully become a reality. On the one hand, it is a consequence of increasingly frequent cultural exchanges in the process of economic integration; it is a real-life activity within an era of communication and dialogue. On the other hand, different cultures must keep their own unique contents and large or small differences, so that it can be able to communicate and dialogue. Homogenization of culture, unlike the process of economic activities, is not straightforward. It has many extremely important and unintegrated factors. Moreover, cultural diversity is a basis for the harmoniously existence of human civilization world. In the same way, diversity of literature and arts make a healthy and vibrant future. However at the same time, we have to admit that a fact that cultural globalization is an irresistible historical trend. The reason is decided by the cultures own characteristics. The cultures all have their own roots and soil of survival and development. They inevitably have regional, local, special and relatively stationary characteristics. Once the national cultures abandon their traditional forms, thus it means giving up their history and losing the foundation and conditions for further development. Meanwhile, the cultures possess universal, dynamic, penetrative and expansive features as well. Although culture always manifested itself through the specific form of history, showing of human nature, strength and scale aspects during the activities of human beings changing the world also outlines the indispensable common elements of different nationalities and different cultural systems. Any culture, regardless how unique the form is or how varied the content is, is based on certain modes of production and a certain form of society. Any variety of large or small size of cultural system subordinates to the â€Å"mother system†. It has the most general feature of culture, which is the bi-directional convective. This characteristic determines any kind of national culture is the unity of the static and dynamic. It is both single and diverse; it belongs with both nation and the whole world. The â€Å"aboriginality† for any local culture, in fact, is only a relatively significance. At the present day, as the earth becoming a village, the trend of â€Å"one world one family† is increasingly obvious. Cultural globalization has become an unstoppable tide. Cultural globalization, in brief, is that while economic globalization, the local culture opening active dialogues to the exotic culture with an open posture, developing and replenishing itself during the mutual exchange. So that the global culture can present that both unity and diversity, univers ality and uniqueness can be accomplished without coming into conflict. In short, inexistence of the state of cultural isolation, interdependence and development of multi-culture, and co-existence of the particularity of local culture and the universality of the worlds culture constitute the organic content of the cultural globalization. It can be seen that cultural globalization must not be understood as an assimilation of different global cultures or â€Å"westernization†. On the other hand, it precisely shows a kind of scene that the world multi-cultural existing at the same time, interacting with each other and mutual constructing. Apart from this, with the trend of cultural globalization, there is an objective necessity for the various ethnic, regional and major cultural systems to occur â€Å"value conflicts† within the interaction. It is because different cultural patterns producing different culture bred factors, and they all have their own quality requirements and the specific scope of application. Therefore the â€Å"value confl icts† generated in the multi-cultural interaction is normal and inevitable. Undeniably, the entirely different cultural patterns formed under differentiation can create an advantage. On the other hand, occupying a higher position, including all of the cultural differences together could maintain an advantage as well. An Indian religion organization named â€Å"Baba† or can be said â€Å"Zaire† is a great example. The logo for â€Å"Baba† is a flower composed of two-layer petals and each layer contains 5 petals. Inside the 5 petals involves all kinds of the identity of the worlds major religions: Hinduism Europe Mother Fu, Christian Cross, Zoroastrianism fire, Islam Crescent and Buddhism The Wheel of Dharma. Each of the traditional logo is the product under the cross-culture, creation and new meaning. Such a strategy holds all the different religions that come from various cultures into one same faith: â€Å"Religion is only one, which is love; Language is only one, which is soul; Race is only one, which is human; God is only one, which is self†. This compatible spirit of the universe make â€Å"Baba† expand to the whole world, and its followers, including the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Fiji, New Zealand, Mauritius, etc., have set up a total of more than 2,000 centers in 137 countries. In this case, it is no doubt that â€Å"Baba† is also a perfect successful example indicating the importance of creativity for cultural integration. Globalization has both advantages and disadvantages. Whether the globalization can benefit on national cultures development primarily depends on the definition of â€Å"globalization†. If the â€Å"globalization† aims to make a variety of culture develop and prosper jointly, that globalization is undoubtedly useful; if â€Å"globalization† is to make the western culture to dominate the development of entire world culture or advocate the â€Å"cultural imperialism†, this â€Å"globalization† is not acceptable from a cultural perspective. The impact of cultural globalization has big drawbacks on small nations. Under the powerful impact of globalization, the weak nations must give serious thoughts in order to avoid losing of autonomy for their local culture, and even assimilating by foreign cultures. Reference: Hamm, B. (2005). Cultural imperialism. Broadview Press. Jameson, F., (1986). Third-World Literature in an Era of Multinational Capitalism. Tomlinson, J., (1991). Cultural Imperialism. London: Printer. Yuanzi H., Xiaoyuan X.,(1998). Globalization and China. Beijing: CCTP.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Ralph Bacerra Essay -- Art

Ralph Bacerra attended Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angelas. Although his original intention was to become a graphic designer, his career path changed after taking a class with Vivika Heino (Stewart, 2008). Heino was the lead ceramics teacher at Chouinard and it was under her instruction that Bacerra found his love for ceramics. Heino was very influential in her use of glazes and inspired Bacerra to experiment and branch out in regards to his glazing methods. After a brief tour in the military Bacerra traveled to China and Japan where he was greatly influenced by the style and glazing techniques of the East. Bacerra went back to Chouinard where he taught for eight years and served as chairman of the ceramics department and later served the same position at Otis College of Art and Design (Bacerra, 2004). Bacerra uses very distinctive geometric elements in his ceramic pieces. Bacerra’s pieces incorporate stripes of shifting background hues, twisting lines, with interlocking cubes and cones with cylinders and other geometric volumes (Lloyd, 2010; Clothier, 2012). At first glance Bacerra’s pieces seem to have odds and ends jutting out in peculiar and random ways. However, when one takes a closer look, all of the shapes and lines work together in a simple and elegant way. Many of his pieces have a mixture of both organic and mechanical elements. He uses organic shell-like circles and smooth, almost melted looking lines along with defined geometric squares, triangles, and circles giving his work a distinct abstract look. Bacerra uses a wide range of color in his pieces but sticks mostly with a bluish-green palate with hints of gold. Many of his pieces are comprised of different shades and values of blue and green (sometimes purple ... ...il 7-19). Interview by F Lloyd [Audio Tape Recording]. Oral history interview with ralph bacerra. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. , Retrieved from http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/interviews/oral-history-interview-ralph-bacerra-12942 Clothier, P. (2012). Ralph bacerra. American Ceramics, Retrieved from http://www.peterclothier.com/ralph-bacerra.html Hamer, F., & Hamer, J. (2004). The potter's dictionary of materials and techniques. (5 ed.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Lloyd, F. (2010). Ralph bacerra. Retrieved from http://www.franklloyd.com/dynamic/artist_bio.asp?ArtistID=1 Jenyns, S. (1971). Japanese pottery. London, England: Praeger Publishers. Stewart, J. Y. (2008, June 13). Ceramic artist famed for use of patterns. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jun/13/local/me-bacerra13

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay --

Existentialism is a complicated and diverse set of theories and beliefs. Jean Paul Sartre’s beliefs are very complex as well in how he conveys them to the reader. He firmly believes that the actions of the person should be what they are and that the outside world should not shape a person. Through his play No Exit, each character would come to represent a key point in existentialism, authenticity, angst and absurdity. The definition of authenticity is to know oneself, accept it and be true to it. One major display of authenticity is the character of Inez and how she acts. The way she holds herself is very true to existentialism and that is due to her authenticity. She knows the kind of person that she used to be and even said it herself,† I was what some people down there called ‘a damned bitch.’ Damned already. So it’s no surprise, being here.†(p. 25). With this response, Sartre shows that Inez acknowledges her mistakes and flaws, she truly knows herself. This is a very free way of thought. It has much leeway into what a person could decide to do with their life or not and Inez decided to do whatever she set her mind to. She accepts what she has done; she even says â€Å"You know, I don’t regret a thing† (p. 25) and even embraces it, as her actions were practically a part of who she was as a whole. She does not care how she comes off to others, even if she is â€Å"rather cruel† (p. 26), she does what she wants and is how she wants to be. Another factor of authenticity shown is the rejection of stereotypes. For example, human feeling and going along with social norms pertaining to the consoling of those that are sad are what would be expected of a person in normal society but Inez goes on to say â€Å"Human feeling. That is beyond my range. I’... ... Absurd was the meaning Garcin came to realize about the room and Estelle and Inez. Overall, No Exit is a great work on part of Jean-Paul Sartre. In it he was able to include at least three of the very key facets of his beliefs in existentialism. They were Authenticity, Angst, and finally, The Absurd. The play had various examples in and of itself but most of them came from the characters and their behavior. Each character had a personality that fit very well into the certain mold that was a part of existentialism. Inez was sure of herself and who she was, Estelle was afraid to make any decision that could influence her as a person and finally Garcin took away or added meaning to the scheme of things. Sartre’s No Exit brought all of these facets together in a very cohesive fashion and overall showed how Existentialism can bring the best and the worst out of people.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Reflective Paper

Reflective Paper – Effective Human Resources Management Theresa Tapley BUS 303 Dr. Kevin Righter March 13, 2010 Reflective Paper – Effective Human Resources Management Effective Human Resources Management (HRM) plays a major role in ensuring that an organization will survive and prosper. The HRM facilitates the most effective use of people or employees to achieve organizational and individual goals. The HRM consists of numerous activities which include, equal employment opportunity (EEO) compliance, job analysis, human resource planning, the recruitment, selection, motivation, and orientation of employees, performance evaluation and compensation, the training and development of employees, labor relations, and the safety, health, and wellness of the workforce. Effective human resources management plays a vital role in the success of an organization and is an active participant in charting the strategic course of competitiveness, productiveness, and efficiency. An effective HRM focuses on action rather than on record-keeping, written procedure, or rules. Although the use of rules, records, and policies are incorporated, â€Å"action† is the focus. The HRM emphasizes the solution of employment problems to help achieve organizational objectives and facilitate employees’ development and satisfaction. An effective HRM is, also, people-oriented. Whenever possible, the HRM treats each employee as an individual and offers services and program to meet the individual’s needs. An effective HRM program is concerned with helping an organization achieve its objectives in the future by providing for competent, well-motivated employees. Human resources are incorporated into an organization’s long-term strategic plans to assist with ensuring that future growth needs will be adequately staffed with qualified, trained employees (Ivancewich, 2010, pg 5). EEO and Affirmative Action One external factor that has a powerful influence on my company's HRM unction is the equal employment opportunity and human rights legislation, which has a profound effect on our policies and procedures concerning recruiting, selection, evaluation, and promotion. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is an independent federal agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual’s race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability and retaliation for reporting and/or opp osing a discriminatory practice. This commission is empowered to file discrimination suits against employers on behalf of alleged victims and to adjudicate claims of discrimination brought against federal agencies. No other regulatory area has as thoroughly affected HRM as the EEO programs have. It has implications for almost every activity in HRM and sets standards for hiring, recruiting, training, terminating, compensating, evaluating, planning, disciplining, and collective bargaining. Employers, to prevent employment discrimination in the workplace or to take remedial action to offset employment discrimination implement EEO programs, (Ivancevich, 2010, pg 65). According to the U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) website, the EEOC is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person's race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information. The laws also apply to all type of work situations, including hiring, firing, promotions, demotions, harassment, training, wages, and benefits. During the employment selection process, each candidate should be evaluated on their qualification of the job requirements, based on their experience, education, and skill set. Many corporations use testing as an important tool. Rae T. Vann, general counsel of the Equal Employment Advisory Council, a national association of large federal contractors, observed, â€Å"When done properly, testing can be a very important tool in the employment selection process, and we commend the Commission on its efforts to improve the quality and fairness of tests and other job screening methods† (Title VII: Affirmative Action, 2006). I encourage my Clinical Managers to become familiar with the provisions of the EEO standards and guidelines. It is essential that they make every effort to seek counsel from our HR dept when initiating the interview and hiring process, dealing with poor performance, disabilities, demotions, appearance of harassment, and training and re-training. Throughout my five years of administrative management, I have unfortunately had to learn HRM and EEOC laws the hard way, through trial and error. With each mistake that I have made, such as not consulting the HR department before decreasing a dual role employee’s hours so that she could focus on one role due to extremely poor performance, I have learned the proper steps to come to the same conclusion. The decrease in hours caused her to lose her benefits and subsequently she filed an EEOC claim of discrimination and retaliation. Fortunately, due to proper documentation of the corrective actions, developmental action plan and the documented counseling, our HRM has adequate information to refute the claim. Now, I consult my HRM representative with any concerns, questions, or updates related to employee situations. Planning, Recruitment, and Selection Human resources planning are the processes by which management ensures that it has the right personnel, who are capable of completing those tasks that help the organization, reach its objectives. It involves forecasting of human resources needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected vacancies (International Labour Organization, 2010). An effective HR plan, also, provides mechanisms to eliminate any gaps that may exist between supply and demand. HR planning determines the numbers and types of employees to be recruited into the organization or phased out of it (Ivancevich, 2010). The Human Resource Planning Process incorporates strategic planning which will have a direct effect on the organization's profitability. The strategic plan must adapt to environmental circumstances. It must forecast how many and what employees are required for the organizations staffing requirements. Next, it must determine how many and what kind of employees are currently employed with the skills and training necessary for the future needs. Finally, after the HR system has analyzed the supply of and the demand or future workers, these two forecasts are compared to determine what action should be taken. Effective workforce planning is a critical element of effective strategic and operational planning. Workforce planning provides managers with a strategic basis for making human resource decisions. It allows managers to anticipate change ather than being surprised by events, as well as providing strategic methods for addressing present and anticipated workforce issues. The US Department of Health and Human Services states, â€Å"Organizational success depends on having the right employees with the right competencies at the right time. Workforce planning provides managers the means of identifying the competencies needed in the workforce not only in the present but in the future and then selecting and developing that workforce† (US Dept. Health and Human Services, 2010). The HR department for my company has implemented a staffing model tool that projects future, potential, or expected growth versus the actual census, the current staffing and skill set of that staff, and calculates the hiring needs of specific positions within the direct and indirect patient care. Once the future needs are determined, then the hiring process begins. Human Resources Development Training and development are processes that attempt to provide an employee with information, skills, and an understanding of the organization and its goals. Training and development are designed to help a person continue to make positive contributions in the form of good performance and advancement within the organization. A solid orientation program is the first step in developing an employee. It reduces anxiety and fears, reduces start-up costs of a new employee, reduces turnover, saves time for supervisors and co-workers, and develops realistic expectations, positive attitudes toward the employer and job satisfaction. Once will established in a specific position, then the manager and employee must set goals for development and advancement. Management and professional development is designed to reduce obsolescence and to increase employees’ satisfaction and productivity. An important part of development is the evaluation process. Performance management is the process by which executives, managers, and supervisors work to align employee performance with the firm’s goals. An effective performance management process determines and evaluates performance, provides feedback to the employees about their performance, and measures and monitors skill-set (Ivancevich, 2010, pg 251). The company that I work for has an excellent formal performance evaluation process that is very effective in the development the employee and the motivation to succeed. Appraising and managing performance at my workplace starts form the day of hire. Each newly hired direct or indirect patient care must attend a through and intensive training program. After 90 days, from date of hire, the new staff member is evaluated for suitability for the position. The manager will present a written 90-day evaluation to the staff member. This evaluation will result in a successful completion of the introductory period, determine a need for an extension of 30 days to improve and meet expectations, or termination due to being unsuitable for the position (this usually occurs when the staff member continually fails to follow policies and procedures and/or causing patient endangerment). Every manager must complete an annual evaluation for staff members under their direct supervision. The score on the evaluation determine the merit increase and caps set forth by the company. When a staff member is failing to follow policy and procedure, putting patient’s safety in jeopardy, tardiness or excessive absenteeism, insubordination, breaking confidentiality and HIPPA regulations, and etc. the manager will conduct corrective action in the form of documented counseling, written corrective action, final corrective action, 3 day suspension, and/or termination. To make this process more effective and ensure compliance with EEOC and federal and state regulations, both next level supervisor and the HR dept representative must approve all final corrective actions, 3-day suspensions, and terminations. Compensation and Benefits There are several reasons that an employer or corporation will offer benefits and services to their employees. One reason is to keep the organization competitive in recruit and retaining employees. Another reason is to keep a union out or because the union has won this during negotiations. Finally, is the fact that providing benefits and service contributed to increased employee performance and job satisfaction (Ivancevich, 2010, pg358). Federal and state governments mandate three benefits programs offered by private and not-for-profit employers. The three mandated programs are unemployment insurance, social security, and workers’ compensation. In addition to the benefits required by law, many employers provide other kinds of benefits voluntarily, such as, compensation for time not worked, insurance protection, retirement plans, FMLA or medical FMLA, life insurance, short and long-term disability, and various retirement programs and stock ownership plans. Some organizations offer tuition reimbursement and flexible benefits plans. Whenever I am interviewing a candidate for a position, I always spend a portion of the interview discussing and explaining our benefit package. Sometimes our hourly rate is not quite as high as our competitor, but our benefits and employee services usually out ways the difference in compensation. Safety and Health The Human Resource Management team of the dialysis company of which I am employed, works very closely with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to ensure that the most acceptable and innovative concepts in employee safety and health are used. The NIOSH is the primary federal agency that conducts research on the safety and health of the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970, to provide research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health established it in 1971 (Bradley, 2002). The NIOSH develops and promotes the use of national and state-based surveillance systems to identify, quantify, and track injuries and illnesses. Epidemiological analysis of these databases helps identify unsafe and unhealthy workplace conditions. NIOSH also supports laboratory and field research to further identify, assess, and control occupational hazards and exposures and the diseases and injuries they cause. In addition to identifying risks, the NIOSH develops and evaluates prevention measures such as control technology, personal protective equipment, and work practices. Through research internally within our company and the NIOSH, many improvements and standards have been put into place for water treatment safety and personal protective equipment. We have strong policies and procedures that protect both the employee and the patient from exposure to health or safety hazards. There are several reasons for establishing good occupational safety and health standards. First, on a moral note, an employee should not have to risk injury or death at work, nor should others associated with the work environment. The second is economical in nature. Many governments realize that poor occupational safety and health performance results in cost to the State, through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of the employability of the worker. The employing organizations also sustain costs in the event of an incident at work, such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, and lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, customers, and community. Lastly, from a legal standpoint, the occupational safety and health requirements may be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law. It is a known fact, that without the extra â€Å"encouragement† of potential regulatory action or litigation, many organizations would not act upon their implied moral obligations. During a Frontline interview with assistant secretary of labor for occupational health and safety, John Henshaw, the question was asked, â€Å"How successful do you think OSHA has been at protecting workers in the United States? † Mr. Henshaw replied, â€Å"In the last 30 years, OSHA has made some tremendous strides in reducing injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. In the last six to eight years, injuries have gone steadily down and fatalities have gone down to the point where they are the lowest ever (Frontline, 2002). The dialysis industry is carefully scrutinized to uphold acceptable OSHA safety and health standards. We, also, have internal auditors that simulate inspections to ensure compliance and safe practices. Employee and Labor Relations Labor relations can refer broadly to any dealings between management and workers about employment conditions. Most commonly, however, labor relations refer to dealings between management and a workforce that is already unionized, or has the potential to become unionized. Labor relations are thus crucial to industries like autos and airlines with heavily unionized workforces. In the United States, labor relations were profoundly affected by the National Labor Relations Act passed during the 1930’s, which gave workers the right to form unions and bargain collectively. Labor relations have been drastically affected by the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, which prohibited the â€Å"closed shop†, as well as, the introduction of right-to-work laws in more than 20 states (Ivancevich, 2010, pgs 477). By the early 21st century, labor relations were less affected by labor unions, to which only 8 percent of private sector workers belonged in 2004, about half of the rate in 1983. The decline reflects the increase in labor relations consultants, who have helped managements avoid unionization (Anonymous, 2010). The presence of a union directly affects most aspects of Human Resources Management, including recruiting, selection, performance evaluation, promotion, compensation, and benefits, among others (Ivancevich, 2010, pg. 34). Unions were once thought of a being for blue-collar factory workers, but now even engineers, nurses, teachers, secretaries, salespersons, college professors, professional football players and even physicians belong to unions. Within my workplace, we have an ongoing informational and educational campaign against the unethical practices of recruitment and enticement for our employees. We offer seminars and counseling in regards to the unionization tactics. While facing declining membership, union officials have turned to highly questionable practice of organizing new members through a process called â€Å"card check†. With card checks, paid union organizers try to persuade workers to sign cards saying that they favor union representation. This persuasion comes in the form of deception, coercion, and harassing visits to worker’s homes. John Ivancevich describes this practice as the â€Å"authorization card† (Ivancevich, 2010, pg. 480). Under current laws, as soon as more than 50 percent of the workers sign a union authorization card, all employees within that organization will be required to participate in the union and pay union dues, even though not a single employee has actually been able to cast a personal, private vote. Often times, individual will sign the cards under intentional or unintentional misunderstandings or to get the organizer to stop harassing them, even though the employee may have no desire to join a union (Anonymous, 2010). Conclusion Human Resources Management is the heart of every organization. It serves as an advocate for each employee, while also protecting the organization from legal repercussions. Whether it is ensuring equal employment opportunity (EEO) compliance, providing job analysis, planning for the future staffing needs and subsequent recruitment and selection of qualified candidates, each of these areas are vital to a well-organized corporation. The HRM is paramount in the motivation, training, and development of employees. Ensuring a positive orientation experience, and concise performance evaluation and compensation will aid in retention and job satisfaction. Finally, the HRM has an extremely important role in labor relations and ensuring the safety, health, and wellness of the workforce. References Anonymous. (2010). When voting isn’t Private. Retrieved on February 26, 2010 from website: http://www. unionfacts. com/articles/cardCheck. cfm Bradley, J. (2002). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 3/1/2010 from website: http://www. cdc. gov/niosh EEOC Office of Legal Counsel staff members (2006). Title VII: Affirmative Action. Retrieved on February 12, 2010 from website: http://www. eeoc. gov/eeoc/foia/letters/2006/vii_affimative_action. html Frontline. (2002). A Dangerous Business. Frontline Interview with John Henshaw. September 30, 2002. Retrieved on 3/2/2010 from website: http://osha. gov International Labour Organization. Retrieved on February 11, 2010 from website: http://wwwilo. org Ivancevich. J. (2010). Human resource management (11th ed. ). Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9780073381466. US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on February 10, 2010 from website: http://www. hhs. gov/ohr/workforce/wfpguide. html Reflective Paper Reflective Paper – Effective Human Resources Management Theresa Tapley BUS 303 Dr. Kevin Righter March 13, 2010 Reflective Paper – Effective Human Resources Management Effective Human Resources Management (HRM) plays a major role in ensuring that an organization will survive and prosper. The HRM facilitates the most effective use of people or employees to achieve organizational and individual goals. The HRM consists of numerous activities which include, equal employment opportunity (EEO) compliance, job analysis, human resource planning, the recruitment, selection, motivation, and orientation of employees, performance evaluation and compensation, the training and development of employees, labor relations, and the safety, health, and wellness of the workforce. Effective human resources management plays a vital role in the success of an organization and is an active participant in charting the strategic course of competitiveness, productiveness, and efficiency. An effective HRM focuses on action rather than on record-keeping, written procedure, or rules. Although the use of rules, records, and policies are incorporated, â€Å"action† is the focus. The HRM emphasizes the solution of employment problems to help achieve organizational objectives and facilitate employees’ development and satisfaction. An effective HRM is, also, people-oriented. Whenever possible, the HRM treats each employee as an individual and offers services and program to meet the individual’s needs. An effective HRM program is concerned with helping an organization achieve its objectives in the future by providing for competent, well-motivated employees. Human resources are incorporated into an organization’s long-term strategic plans to assist with ensuring that future growth needs will be adequately staffed with qualified, trained employees (Ivancewich, 2010, pg 5). EEO and Affirmative Action One external factor that has a powerful influence on my company's HRM unction is the equal employment opportunity and human rights legislation, which has a profound effect on our policies and procedures concerning recruiting, selection, evaluation, and promotion. The U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is an independent federal agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual’s race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability and retaliation for reporting and/or opp osing a discriminatory practice. This commission is empowered to file discrimination suits against employers on behalf of alleged victims and to adjudicate claims of discrimination brought against federal agencies. No other regulatory area has as thoroughly affected HRM as the EEO programs have. It has implications for almost every activity in HRM and sets standards for hiring, recruiting, training, terminating, compensating, evaluating, planning, disciplining, and collective bargaining. Employers, to prevent employment discrimination in the workplace or to take remedial action to offset employment discrimination implement EEO programs, (Ivancevich, 2010, pg 65). According to the U. S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) website, the EEOC is responsible for enforcing federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person's race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy), national origin, age (40 or older), disability or genetic information. The laws also apply to all type of work situations, including hiring, firing, promotions, demotions, harassment, training, wages, and benefits. During the employment selection process, each candidate should be evaluated on their qualification of the job requirements, based on their experience, education, and skill set. Many corporations use testing as an important tool. Rae T. Vann, general counsel of the Equal Employment Advisory Council, a national association of large federal contractors, observed, â€Å"When done properly, testing can be a very important tool in the employment selection process, and we commend the Commission on its efforts to improve the quality and fairness of tests and other job screening methods† (Title VII: Affirmative Action, 2006). I encourage my Clinical Managers to become familiar with the provisions of the EEO standards and guidelines. It is essential that they make every effort to seek counsel from our HR dept when initiating the interview and hiring process, dealing with poor performance, disabilities, demotions, appearance of harassment, and training and re-training. Throughout my five years of administrative management, I have unfortunately had to learn HRM and EEOC laws the hard way, through trial and error. With each mistake that I have made, such as not consulting the HR department before decreasing a dual role employee’s hours so that she could focus on one role due to extremely poor performance, I have learned the proper steps to come to the same conclusion. The decrease in hours caused her to lose her benefits and subsequently she filed an EEOC claim of discrimination and retaliation. Fortunately, due to proper documentation of the corrective actions, developmental action plan and the documented counseling, our HRM has adequate information to refute the claim. Now, I consult my HRM representative with any concerns, questions, or updates related to employee situations. Planning, Recruitment, and Selection Human resources planning are the processes by which management ensures that it has the right personnel, who are capable of completing those tasks that help the organization, reach its objectives. It involves forecasting of human resources needs and the projected matching of individuals with expected vacancies (International Labour Organization, 2010). An effective HR plan, also, provides mechanisms to eliminate any gaps that may exist between supply and demand. HR planning determines the numbers and types of employees to be recruited into the organization or phased out of it (Ivancevich, 2010). The Human Resource Planning Process incorporates strategic planning which will have a direct effect on the organization's profitability. The strategic plan must adapt to environmental circumstances. It must forecast how many and what employees are required for the organizations staffing requirements. Next, it must determine how many and what kind of employees are currently employed with the skills and training necessary for the future needs. Finally, after the HR system has analyzed the supply of and the demand or future workers, these two forecasts are compared to determine what action should be taken. Effective workforce planning is a critical element of effective strategic and operational planning. Workforce planning provides managers with a strategic basis for making human resource decisions. It allows managers to anticipate change ather than being surprised by events, as well as providing strategic methods for addressing present and anticipated workforce issues. The US Department of Health and Human Services states, â€Å"Organizational success depends on having the right employees with the right competencies at the right time. Workforce planning provides managers the means of identifying the competencies needed in the workforce not only in the present but in the future and then selecting and developing that workforce† (US Dept. Health and Human Services, 2010). The HR department for my company has implemented a staffing model tool that projects future, potential, or expected growth versus the actual census, the current staffing and skill set of that staff, and calculates the hiring needs of specific positions within the direct and indirect patient care. Once the future needs are determined, then the hiring process begins. Human Resources Development Training and development are processes that attempt to provide an employee with information, skills, and an understanding of the organization and its goals. Training and development are designed to help a person continue to make positive contributions in the form of good performance and advancement within the organization. A solid orientation program is the first step in developing an employee. It reduces anxiety and fears, reduces start-up costs of a new employee, reduces turnover, saves time for supervisors and co-workers, and develops realistic expectations, positive attitudes toward the employer and job satisfaction. Once will established in a specific position, then the manager and employee must set goals for development and advancement. Management and professional development is designed to reduce obsolescence and to increase employees’ satisfaction and productivity. An important part of development is the evaluation process. Performance management is the process by which executives, managers, and supervisors work to align employee performance with the firm’s goals. An effective performance management process determines and evaluates performance, provides feedback to the employees about their performance, and measures and monitors skill-set (Ivancevich, 2010, pg 251). The company that I work for has an excellent formal performance evaluation process that is very effective in the development the employee and the motivation to succeed. Appraising and managing performance at my workplace starts form the day of hire. Each newly hired direct or indirect patient care must attend a through and intensive training program. After 90 days, from date of hire, the new staff member is evaluated for suitability for the position. The manager will present a written 90-day evaluation to the staff member. This evaluation will result in a successful completion of the introductory period, determine a need for an extension of 30 days to improve and meet expectations, or termination due to being unsuitable for the position (this usually occurs when the staff member continually fails to follow policies and procedures and/or causing patient endangerment). Every manager must complete an annual evaluation for staff members under their direct supervision. The score on the evaluation determine the merit increase and caps set forth by the company. When a staff member is failing to follow policy and procedure, putting patient’s safety in jeopardy, tardiness or excessive absenteeism, insubordination, breaking confidentiality and HIPPA regulations, and etc. the manager will conduct corrective action in the form of documented counseling, written corrective action, final corrective action, 3 day suspension, and/or termination. To make this process more effective and ensure compliance with EEOC and federal and state regulations, both next level supervisor and the HR dept representative must approve all final corrective actions, 3-day suspensions, and terminations. Compensation and Benefits There are several reasons that an employer or corporation will offer benefits and services to their employees. One reason is to keep the organization competitive in recruit and retaining employees. Another reason is to keep a union out or because the union has won this during negotiations. Finally, is the fact that providing benefits and service contributed to increased employee performance and job satisfaction (Ivancevich, 2010, pg358). Federal and state governments mandate three benefits programs offered by private and not-for-profit employers. The three mandated programs are unemployment insurance, social security, and workers’ compensation. In addition to the benefits required by law, many employers provide other kinds of benefits voluntarily, such as, compensation for time not worked, insurance protection, retirement plans, FMLA or medical FMLA, life insurance, short and long-term disability, and various retirement programs and stock ownership plans. Some organizations offer tuition reimbursement and flexible benefits plans. Whenever I am interviewing a candidate for a position, I always spend a portion of the interview discussing and explaining our benefit package. Sometimes our hourly rate is not quite as high as our competitor, but our benefits and employee services usually out ways the difference in compensation. Safety and Health The Human Resource Management team of the dialysis company of which I am employed, works very closely with the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to ensure that the most acceptable and innovative concepts in employee safety and health are used. The NIOSH is the primary federal agency that conducts research on the safety and health of the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSH Act) of 1970, to provide research, information, education, and training in the field of occupational safety and health established it in 1971 (Bradley, 2002). The NIOSH develops and promotes the use of national and state-based surveillance systems to identify, quantify, and track injuries and illnesses. Epidemiological analysis of these databases helps identify unsafe and unhealthy workplace conditions. NIOSH also supports laboratory and field research to further identify, assess, and control occupational hazards and exposures and the diseases and injuries they cause. In addition to identifying risks, the NIOSH develops and evaluates prevention measures such as control technology, personal protective equipment, and work practices. Through research internally within our company and the NIOSH, many improvements and standards have been put into place for water treatment safety and personal protective equipment. We have strong policies and procedures that protect both the employee and the patient from exposure to health or safety hazards. There are several reasons for establishing good occupational safety and health standards. First, on a moral note, an employee should not have to risk injury or death at work, nor should others associated with the work environment. The second is economical in nature. Many governments realize that poor occupational safety and health performance results in cost to the State, through social security payments to the incapacitated, costs for medical treatment, and the loss of the employability of the worker. The employing organizations also sustain costs in the event of an incident at work, such as legal fees, fines, compensatory damages, investigation time, and lost production, lost goodwill from the workforce, customers, and community. Lastly, from a legal standpoint, the occupational safety and health requirements may be reinforced in civil law and/or criminal law. It is a known fact, that without the extra â€Å"encouragement† of potential regulatory action or litigation, many organizations would not act upon their implied moral obligations. During a Frontline interview with assistant secretary of labor for occupational health and safety, John Henshaw, the question was asked, â€Å"How successful do you think OSHA has been at protecting workers in the United States? † Mr. Henshaw replied, â€Å"In the last 30 years, OSHA has made some tremendous strides in reducing injuries, illnesses, and fatalities. In the last six to eight years, injuries have gone steadily down and fatalities have gone down to the point where they are the lowest ever (Frontline, 2002). The dialysis industry is carefully scrutinized to uphold acceptable OSHA safety and health standards. We, also, have internal auditors that simulate inspections to ensure compliance and safe practices. Employee and Labor Relations Labor relations can refer broadly to any dealings between management and workers about employment conditions. Most commonly, however, labor relations refer to dealings between management and a workforce that is already unionized, or has the potential to become unionized. Labor relations are thus crucial to industries like autos and airlines with heavily unionized workforces. In the United States, labor relations were profoundly affected by the National Labor Relations Act passed during the 1930’s, which gave workers the right to form unions and bargain collectively. Labor relations have been drastically affected by the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act, which prohibited the â€Å"closed shop†, as well as, the introduction of right-to-work laws in more than 20 states (Ivancevich, 2010, pgs 477). By the early 21st century, labor relations were less affected by labor unions, to which only 8 percent of private sector workers belonged in 2004, about half of the rate in 1983. The decline reflects the increase in labor relations consultants, who have helped managements avoid unionization (Anonymous, 2010). The presence of a union directly affects most aspects of Human Resources Management, including recruiting, selection, performance evaluation, promotion, compensation, and benefits, among others (Ivancevich, 2010, pg. 34). Unions were once thought of a being for blue-collar factory workers, but now even engineers, nurses, teachers, secretaries, salespersons, college professors, professional football players and even physicians belong to unions. Within my workplace, we have an ongoing informational and educational campaign against the unethical practices of recruitment and enticement for our employees. We offer seminars and counseling in regards to the unionization tactics. While facing declining membership, union officials have turned to highly questionable practice of organizing new members through a process called â€Å"card check†. With card checks, paid union organizers try to persuade workers to sign cards saying that they favor union representation. This persuasion comes in the form of deception, coercion, and harassing visits to worker’s homes. John Ivancevich describes this practice as the â€Å"authorization card† (Ivancevich, 2010, pg. 480). Under current laws, as soon as more than 50 percent of the workers sign a union authorization card, all employees within that organization will be required to participate in the union and pay union dues, even though not a single employee has actually been able to cast a personal, private vote. Often times, individual will sign the cards under intentional or unintentional misunderstandings or to get the organizer to stop harassing them, even though the employee may have no desire to join a union (Anonymous, 2010). Conclusion Human Resources Management is the heart of every organization. It serves as an advocate for each employee, while also protecting the organization from legal repercussions. Whether it is ensuring equal employment opportunity (EEO) compliance, providing job analysis, planning for the future staffing needs and subsequent recruitment and selection of qualified candidates, each of these areas are vital to a well-organized corporation. The HRM is paramount in the motivation, training, and development of employees. Ensuring a positive orientation experience, and concise performance evaluation and compensation will aid in retention and job satisfaction. Finally, the HRM has an extremely important role in labor relations and ensuring the safety, health, and wellness of the workforce. References Anonymous. (2010). When voting isn’t Private. Retrieved on February 26, 2010 from website: http://www. unionfacts. com/articles/cardCheck. cfm Bradley, J. (2002). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 3/1/2010 from website: http://www. cdc. gov/niosh EEOC Office of Legal Counsel staff members (2006). Title VII: Affirmative Action. Retrieved on February 12, 2010 from website: http://www. eeoc. gov/eeoc/foia/letters/2006/vii_affimative_action. html Frontline. (2002). A Dangerous Business. Frontline Interview with John Henshaw. September 30, 2002. Retrieved on 3/2/2010 from website: http://osha. gov International Labour Organization. Retrieved on February 11, 2010 from website: http://wwwilo. org Ivancevich. J. (2010). Human resource management (11th ed. ). Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 9780073381466. US Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on February 10, 2010 from website: http://www. hhs. gov/ohr/workforce/wfpguide. html

Monday, September 16, 2019

History of Calculus Essay

Calculus is an integral part of the mathematics world. Various mathematicians coming from all parts of the world have shaped this theorem but the two main contributors are Sir Isaac Newton and Wilhelm Von Leibniz. The reason they are considered the inventors of Calculus is because they were able to give a unified approach to tangent and area problems unlike the others who used specific methods. Both of these mathematicians developed general concepts Newton was associated with the fluxion and the fluent as for Leibniz, he produced the differential and the integral. Isaac Newton was a self-taught mathematic student who studied at Trinity College in Cambridge starting in 1661. He shaped his work in optics, celestial mechanics and mathematics, including calculus. His early work consisted of Analysis with Infinite Series in 1669 but his most famous work is the Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy published in 1687. Newton only introduced his notions of calculus in detail until the years 1704 to 1736. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German who at first, concentrated on the topics of philosophy and law but was introduced to advanced mathematics during a brief stay at the University of Jena in 1663. He worked on his calculus from 1673 to 1676 and revealed his work on differential calculus in 1684 with the integral calculus in 1686. There has been much controversy over who deserves the credit for the primary inventor of Calculus. Some say since Newton started his work earlier, Leibniz may have plagiarized some of the work. Others explain that Leibniz worked on his theories alone and published his work before Newton. This rift destroyed Leibniz who left the world with almost no one by his side, while Newton was glorified. It is important to state that Leibniz concepts were easier to use and that the name of the theorem is due to him. He also created the symbols used for differentiation and integration. Needless to say, it is due to both of their incredible work that millions of people have discovered the complex and interesting world of calculus!

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Images of Woman’s Sexuality in Advertisements Essay

Considering the time an average American spends in front of the TV screen, it is obvious that the things he/she sees there influence greatly his/her perception of the world around. The stereotypes media offers us make a great impact of our perception of people. Thus, it’s no wonder that the images of women’s sexuality in advertisements partly form our gender stereotypes. For to get more information on this issue, I analyzed an article by Christina N. Baker, published in the Sex Roles: A Journal of Research in January 2005. The name of the article is Images of women’s sexuality in advertisements: a content analysis of Black- and White-oriented women’s and men’s magazines. This article analyzes the stereotypes of women’s sexuality given in advertisements, the differences of those stereotypes for the White and Black woman. It gives the peculiarities of images created for the representatives of different races, and analyzes the origins and the influence of stereotypes that appear due to the TV and magazine commercials. It has always seemed to me that people in our society share some distorted view of woman and their sexuality. They express the concepts about it that are sometimes totally ridiculous (like that a woman should not express her sexual desires, as it is socially disapproved). Those concepts are very widespread nowadays, and I have been interested for a long time already why people trust those stereotypes, why lots man judge the woman that surround them on the strength of those concepts. Later I understood that the media also have the considerable role on forming the gender stereotypes. Thus I felt I wanted to know more about the specific features of these stereotypes, and, about the mechanism of their functioning. The author developed three hypotheses about the portrayal of woman in media. The first was that â€Å"sexual women will be portrayed with characteristics such as submissiveness and dependency in both women’s and men’s mainstream/White-oriented magazines†. According to the review of literature the author made, we live in a patriarchal society, where man a considered to be superior to women, thus they put the criteria of sexuality for woman. For man â€Å"†¦sexual attractiveness in women is associated with physical beauty. A sign of status for a man is to have a physically attractive woman by his side. The more physically attractive a woman is, the more prestige she will bring to her male partner/spouse†. The woman portrayed in commercials, and on the pages of the magazines is bound to be submissive, as it is one of the demands of patriarchal society. The author also notes that some of the scientific findings hypothesize that the continuous showing in the media of women as submissive sex objects whose main goal is to satisfy man’s desires, reinforces the gender hierarchy existing in the contemporary society. The second hypothesis is that â€Å"sexual Black women are more likely than sexual White women to be portrayed as dominant and independent†. The author noted that despite of the fact that all of the women are more likely to be portrayed as the sexual objects, White woman are seen as the etalon of beauty, thus they are portrayed as the sex objects more frequently than the Black women are. It is also the fact that Black women have always been depicted as dominant towards Black man. It is historically that Black man can’t get a decent job, thus Black women often have to bring the bacon home. This is the reason why Black woman are often portrayed as the heads of the families in the advertisements. The author also noted that the two stereotypes that exist about black woman are â€Å"Mommy† – the matriarch of the big family, and the mother that is raising her child by herself. The stereotype also exists in the contemporary society that Black woman usually don’t have a husband. The author adds that the Black matriarch is that is portrayed as deviant because she challenges the assumption of the patriarchal family. The third hypothesis is that â€Å"Black-oriented magazines are more likely than White-oriented magazines to portray sexual women as dominant and independent†. The literature review conducted by the author states that despite of the fact that television commercials that targeted Black audiences contained about as many stereotypical images of Blacks as did those directed toward Whites, the Blackoriented magazines portrayed women in more active and even aggressive role. It was also that in the magazines for the Blacks women were more often portrayed in the role of the mother than women in the magazines for the whites. The characteristic feature of the portrayal of woman in the Blackoriented magazines was that there woman were rather shown in an extended families than in nuclear one, † which conforms to the matriarch stereotype. † The last hypotheses said that â€Å"black women will be portrayed with physical characteristics that conform to White standards of beauty. However, Black women are more likely to have European features in White-oriented magazines than in Black-oriented magazines†. The research showed that nowadays Blackoriented magazines portray women which conform to the White standart of beauty. The color of skin of those woman is dark, but the features are thin, they are slender, and they usually have long and straight hair. In fact, the only phenotypic difference between Caucasian and Afro-American models is the color of skin. Blackoriented magazines don’t consider the fact that the features portrayed are not typical for the Black woman, and don’t respond to the African canons of beauty. The sexual attractiveness in our society is associated with Whiteness, thus the magazines try to fulfill the desires of their readers. The findings of the article’s author coincide with the results of researches conducted by the psychologists, sociologists and psychologists during the last fifty years. For example, Poe, (1976), and Silverstein & Silverstein,(1974) found that in most of the TV advertisements woman were less physically active that man were, and they were the recipients of the advice given by man. It confirms the first hypothesis of the article’s author, the one which says that women are depicted as submissive to man. The persuasion is that the woman has to be weak for to be attractive.